In the later thirteenth century the Latin East, already crippled by civil war and treated as a pawn in the empire building schemes of several western rulers, also faced the rise of two new eastern powers. In this joint podcast, Sajia Hanif and Kevin Vogelaar recount the rise of the Mongol empire and the Mamluk Sultanate of Egypt. As these formidable new political dynasties rose to prominence, they quickly found that they had to contend with each other. Their titanic struggle set the stage for the final decades of the Kingdom of Jerusalem's survival on the Levantine mainland. Listen to find out how the shifting fortunes of the Mongols and the Mamluks changed the political landscape surrounding the crusader states.